On the navigation page PV-Modules all photovoltaic modules to be simulated are defined and combined to module surfaces. Each module surface contains a module type with an individual orientation.
In the tree view in area 1 the different module areas are created and managed. Shading and Module degradation can also be edited for each module area. In the 2 area, the respective PV module is selected from the Database. In the range 3 the number of modules and the installation situation are defined. The number of PV modules can be set
Creating a new module area
The first module area is defined by default.
New module areas can be created via the selection bar (area 1 ) or via the context menu of an existing module area (right click). With this button you can create new module areas or copy existing module areas via .
(optional) Renaming a module area
Selection of the PV module to be used
From the Company and Model drop down menus, select a photovoltaic module you want to use for the current module area. Click the button for detailed information on the selected PV module. Alternatively, click the button to access the database of PV modules. The desired PV module can also be selected there.
If the desired PV module does not exist in the database, you can create your own data records and use them.
Define the number of modules or module assignment
Select Installation type
Define Tracking including module orientation
(optional) Define Further parameters
Via Desired ratio to consumption the number of modules can be adjusted as a percentage to an annual consumption. Depending on the module inclination, the orientation and the tracking system, the number of modules is calculated in order to generate the corresponding PV energy.
If no consumers are defined, a fictitious annual consumption can be selected as calculation basis in the dialogue “Ratio of PV energy (DC) to consumption”.
In the case of PV systems with defined consumers, the desired ratio can also be extended to a self-selected observation period. In addition to annual consumption as the reference period, there are individual months and the worst month of the year to choose from.
|Roof parallel - well ventilated||The PV modules are mounted at a distance above the roof cladding|
|Roof-integrated - ventilated||The PV modules are mounted on a substructure parallel to the roof cladding.. The rear ventilation contributes to cooling the modules.|
|Roof-integrated - not ventilated||The PV modules form the roof cladding.|
|Mounted - Roof||The PV modules are elevated mounted on a roof.|
|Mounted - Open area||The PV modules are mounted at ground level and elevated.|
|Tracking type||Description||Tracking scheme|
|None||No module tracking is desired. Only the inclination and orientation of the modules is determined.|
|Single North-South Axis||The PV modules are oriented to the south, while the axis of rotation is in the north-south plane. The inclination of the rotary axis is defined via Rotation Axis Incline. The opening angle can be defined via Opening angle of rotation.
The Surface Usage Factor indicates the distance between the tracked module rows. A surface usage factor of 1 means that the distance from one module row to the next is equal to the width or height of the module. If the surface usage factor is 0, the next row of modules is infinitely far away. A surface usage factor of 0.5 means that the distance is two module lengths or widths.
|Single East-West Axis||The PV modules are mounted so as to allow rotation around the east-west axis, which is restricted by Opening angle of rotation.|
|Single Vertical Rotation Axis||The PV modules are elevated with a fixed angle of inclination and track the solar azimuth by rotating the vertical axis. The opening angle can be defined via Azimuth angle of opening.|
|Biaxial||In this variant, the PV module can be rotated in two axes. The Maximum inclination defines the greatest possible module inclination up to 90°, Azimuth angle of opening defines the opening angle.|
If no tracking is selected, the inclination of the module surface can be optimized with the button (Optimizing the inclination angle). With a given orientation, the system searches for the orientation with the highest irradiation on the inclined plane or module surface in the full angle of inclination range.
It is also possible to optimize the angle of inclination of uniaxially tracked module surfaces in north-south orientation. In both cases, the horizon shadowing is also taken into account.
Please note that all opening angles are symmetrically aligned. The angle bisector is defined by the plane of the module orientation and surface normal and, in the case of azimuth tracking, along the north-south axis.
The inclination of the PV modules describe the angle between the horizontal and the module surface.
The orientation describes the position of the module surface in relation to the direction of the compass. It is independent of the climate data location, i.e. the same in the northern and southern hemisphere.
|Azimuth Northern Hemisphere
|Azimuth Southern Hemisphere
The Azimuth depends on the location selected in the climate data on the navigation page System type, Climate and Grid. It describes the deviation from the normal of the module area to the south direction (northern hemisphere) or the north direction (southern hemisphere). It is 0° if the area faces exactly south (northern hemisphere) or north (southern hemisphere). PV*SOL® recognizes by the climate data set, which contains the latitude, whether the plant is on the northern or southern hemisphere.
In the Options menu you can define further parameters for the module surfaces.
Power losses due to voltage drop in the bypass diodes
If the project is not planned in 3D, the losses in the bypass diodes are estimated on a general basis. You can enter this value here. The losses due to the voltage drop at the blocking diodes are precisely calculated in the simulation for 3D projects. They depend on the shading situation and the connection and are output in the energy balance after the simulation.
Loss of performance due to mismatch or reduced yield
Due to manufacturing tolerances, modules may have different MPPs (mismatching) or the modules may not achieve the full, specified output (reduced yield). The resulting power losses can range from 1 to 5 %. This does not refer to the mismatch effects that occur when differently aligned modules are connected to an inverter - these losses are determined during simulation.
Reflection of the radiation on the ground or in the environment increases the irradiation on the module surface. For example, if the ground is covered with snow, the albedo amounts to approx. 80%. Under normal conditions, the albedo is 20%. See table under Ground reflection (Albedo).
Power losses due to soiling of the PV modules
Losses due to soiling vary depending on the installation location. The losses are usually negligible from a certain angle of inclination (approx. 20°) at sites with regular precipitation. However, considerable losses can occur in low-rain, dusty locations or very flat-mounted PV modules.